CBD and depression, can cannabidiol help sufferers?

CBD and depression, can cannabidiol help sufferers?

More and more scientific evidence confirms the effectiveness of cannabidiol (CBD) in alleviating the symptoms of depression.

Cannabidiol (CBD) intake may have benefits in treating depression. The main non-psychoactive active ingredient of the cannabis plant, in fact, is able to exert a positive effect on serotonin receptors, helping to stabilize serotonin levels.

According to Istat data for 2018, some form of depression affects a good 2.8 million people. Furthermore, a particular incidence of depression in elderly people has been recorded every year. This is a considerable problem, a mental illness that many individuals struggle against every day.

There are many drugs that are used to treat depression; however, recently, many prefer to use CBD-based products to avoid the side effects of certain drugs. It has been shown by various scientific studies, in fact, that the action of cannabidiol on the endocannabinoid system of the human body has a positive effect.

Depression, cannabidiol (CBD) and myths to debunk

Over the years it has become common to associate serotonin deficiency as the only phenomenon responsible for the onset of the depressive syndrome. In the same way, we tend to simplify and call "depression" what is a set of extremely varied manifestations and symptoms that vary from person to person.

In this context, it has been observed, over the years, that cannabidiol and its "regulatory" function of the endocannabinoid system could play an important role as a therapeutic agent for those people suffering from depression.

In 2018, scientists at the University of Washington published a study of 1,400 patients who were given various types of cannabis (with different percentages of CBD and THC) and then recorded their effects on particular symptoms, including those typical of depression. The results were surprising. More than 50% of the volunteers perceived a decrease in depression. In particular, it was cannabis with a high cannabidiol content (CBD greater than 9%) and low THC (less than 5.5%) to obtain the best results.

CBD and depression


Scientific research on Depression and CBD

For many years, researchers at various universities are increasingly investigating the potential of cannabis in intervening on those people suffering from depression. In the study published in 2014 by researchers at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, it emerged that cannabidiol (CBD) has almost always demonstrated its efficacy on animal models to reduce the symptoms of anxiety and depression. The psychotherapeutic potential of cannabidiol is enormous, just think that CBD is able to dilute the most acute psychotropic effects of THC, the other famous active ingredient of the cannabis plant.

Even in recent times, the experiments carried out on animal models clearly indicate how promising the cannabidiol is to intervene on depression. There is still a long way to go and much research still needs to be done to shed light on the therapeutic potential of the cannabis plant.

December 16, 2019 — Chiara Lanza
What is the maximum value of CBD that can be reached in nature? Let's be clear

What is the maximum value of CBD that can be reached in nature? Let's be clear

The great success of products containing CBD has certainly had the extraordinary merit of making known the innumerable properties of hemp to broad strata of the population. On the other hand, however, I have approached people who have little knowledge of the physiology of the plant, further confusion has been created on a topic that for several reasons has always been unclear.

Many clients, especially at their first approach to this world, tend to choose inflorescences with a higher CBD value. The first consideration to start with is that there is no cannabis plant in nature, once dry, that develops a CBD value higher than 20%. So be wary of producers, traders, and laboratory analysis that show a higher cannabidiol value on the label.

In order to understand how to reach this natural limit of cannabidiol and the close relationship between THC and CBD values, we report an interesting article in the specialized magazine Leafly. The legal cannabis information portal considers various data on commercial genetics from more than 1,200 laboratories in Washington state. In short, the result is that commercial cannabis plants can be classified into 3 macro groups based on the relationship between THC and CBD values ​​they develop.

The first is that of genetics with a very strong prevalence of THC, with practically irrelevant cannabidiol values. Continuous research by growers and seed banks has led to the creation of plants with a THC level of nearly 30%. A very high value, just think that already inflorescences with an 18/20% are considered rich in tetrahydro cannabidiol. Among the most famous strains that reach such high percentages we certainly find Gorilla Glue and Girls Scout Cookies, both close to 25%.

We then have the genetics that well balances both major cannabinoids. Values ranging from 5 to 15% of both THC and CBD characterize these plants, which are the most relevant at the medical level. In the last few years, in fact, we have begun to study how the two cannabinoids interact, with important implications not only clinical. It has been seen that CBD alleviates the psychotropic effects of THC, exalting therapeutic ones, and even acting as its antagonist, given that it stimulates a receptor different from THC. But we are only at the beginning of the research.

In the last group, we find instead the genetics that we are most interested in, as they are the only ones we can treat. These inflorescences once dried have negligible THC values and a rather high CBD content. In the USA the strain of this group is the Charlotte Web which presents 1% of tetrahydrocannabinol compared to 20% of CBD. And in most cases, this is the relationship that links the two active ingredients: THC: CBD = 1:20. In the last few months, however, the very famous seed bank Dinafem has launched its Dinamed line dedicated to CBD prevalence plants. The Spanish house claims to be able to reach a higher ratio, approximately equal to a ratio of 1 to 25. In Italy, given that it is possible to treat inflorescences with a THC value between 0.2, it is, therefore, natural having cannabidiol values between 8 and 15% maximum.

Having said this, consequently all the inflorescences that have a higher percentage have counterfeit, or at least unclear, analyzes. Or they are sophisticated with additives, such as terpenes or CBD extracts, which once added to the flower make it possible to overcome that famous 20%. This does not mean that they are harmful or unhealthy products, but they are certainly not natural. So much so that often these inflorescences have a not very pleasant smell due to their own laboratory terpenes. Not only that, the "sprayed" or otherwise added CBD is much more volatile than that which the plant naturally develops and which it holds firmly in its buds. So once heated, (whether cooked, vaporized or burned) that portion of additive CBD tends to shrink considerably until it disappears completely.

It is precisely for these reasons that we advise against choosing inflorescences at their CBD level, which is more or less high. Rather, we invite our customers to inspect the different types of flowers and, why not, to smell them, preferring them for their olfactory qualities.

December 11, 2019 — Chiara Lanza
Smoking Tea | Herbal Blends | Tobacco Substitute

Smoking Tea | Herbal Blends | Tobacco Substitute

Smoking Tea | Herbal Blends | Tobacco Substitute

In the last days, I'm getting a lot of questions about smoking tea. The last articles were all about smokable herbs that possible to blend with your cannabis instead of the addictive tobacco. So, lots of people wondering if green tea or any other tea possible to blend with other smokable herbs to make your own herbal blend.

After investigating the subject, by reading, asking, trying. I'm happy to share this knowledge with you.

smoking black tea

People may smoke tea for health benefits, to help quit smoking, or to get a caffeine boost.


So why to smoke tea and how to smoke tea?

Why smoke tea? - Tea has benefits whether you smoke it or drink it. The first and maybe the most important benefit of smoking tea that’s it help quit tobacco cigarette addiction. The second benefit of smoking tea it's that tea cigarettes don’t contain nicotine (the chemical compound that makes normal cigarettes addictive) it’s generally not considered to be addictive.

How to smoke tea? – All you need its dry tea leaves or tea bags from them you can make your tea cigarette. The process is the same as with usual homemade cigarettes – take tea leaves and roll it with the help of rolling paper into cigarettes. For beginners I recommend to mix tea leaves with some other herbs (marshmallow, white sage, lavender, raspberry, chamomile ) to make the blend smoother, also you should chop off the tea to make it easier to roll.

loose tea to smoke

Green tea’s compounds — L-theanine, catechins, and more — are properly absorbed when smoked.

Teas which you can smoke:

Smoking Earl grey tea smoke is smooth but heavy. You can compare it to pipe tobacco. There is a feeling of the numb tongue and aromatic aftertaste.

Smoking Green tea gives you mild relaxation and thanks to caffeine works as a mild pain reliever.

Smoking Black Tea smoking is more tobacco-like, as it is a bit harsh, whilst green tea tastes like herb. It’s pretty logical as IT IS a herb. Firstly, it is hard on the lungs, but if this kind of tea is more preferable for you, there is the opportunity to get used to it.

There is a difference between smoking teabag or smoking loose tea:

Smoking “loose tea” means tea that’s primarily made up of whole, unbroken leaves.

Smoking Teabags are usually made from the opposite – low tea grades, such as dust and fannings.

So what is the best tea to smoke?

It’s a question of taste, it's like to ask who you love more father or mother, for every occasion different answer will come. For me the best tea cigarette it’s a green tea cigarette with some other smokable herbs for some aroma and unique flavour, those I love to smoke during the day to get some calm in the middle of a stressful day. Chamomile tea cigarette I prefer to smoke before sleep, chamomile has the ability to enhance the ability to sleep whether consumed as a tea or a cigarette.

green tea to smoke with cannabis

Benefits of drinking green tea include immune system support, improved brain function, improved dental health. 


If you're wondering what to smoke "loose tea" or tea bags, so Loose tea is pricier, but you are going to let the smoke in your lungs. So, first things first – quality as we talk about our health. You don’t want to smoke dust and low-quality leaves, even if it is about the economy. The answer to the question ‘can you smoke green tea?’ is ‘Yes’ if you prefer loose tea in the tins.

Effects of smoking tea

Smoking tea gives you an exotic and relaxed feeling. By smoking Chinese green tea or Darjeeling tea you`ll get a slightly bitter flavour if you interested to make the taste smoother and more delicate you should smoke jasmine or lavender tea.  

Smoking tea gives you relaxation, helps to calm your nerves down.


Another question that bothers many: What is high tea? Can tea get you high?

So what is high tea? - Catechins. These are the antioxidants in tea. Catechins are one of the main reasons you might feel high after drinking tea.

Some people compare feeling tea drunk to a strong caffeine buzz. This can include positive and euphoric feelings or negative side effects like shakiness, nausea and other unpleasant sensations. So yes, if you will drink very strong tea or smoke it the whole day you'll feel some euphoric feelings.

cannabis tea

Marijuana tea is a soothing drink that provides you  a calming high that is perfect for pain or stress relief.


Tea benefits

Improved memory and focus. The leaves of green tea contain L-theanine with caffeine that leads to lowering of deterioration of all mental functions such as concentration and memory abilities

Good replacement for cigarettes with nicotine. I don’t insist on perceiving this type of smoking as a good way of substitution of your cigarettes, as there is no confirmed information by scientists about this curable effect. But people say what they say. A lot of them insist on smoking green tea as a good manoeuvre to avoid smoking cigarettes and nicotine as well.

Lowered anxiety. L-theanine affects neurotransmitter receptors and it helps to lower the level of a person’s anxiety and nervousness.

Source: RelaLeaf.com 

November 25, 2019 — Chiara Lanza

The hidden secrets behind smoking true Terpenes

Terpenes are a newly understood compound that occurs naturally in cannabis. Breakthrough techniques allow manufacturers to produce terpene isolates, which is fueling a new and exciting way to enjoy cannabis. Join us as we delve into the mysterious world of terpenes, how you can consume them, and their seemingly endless benefits.


What Are Terpenes and What Do They Do?

True Terpenes are organic compounds that occur naturally in the plant kingdom. Plants exude terpenes for the beneficial aroma and flavours, which either attract or repel insects. When they’re used for attraction, then it helps bring beneficial insects for pollination or protection. When the plant exhibits terpenes to repel insects, then it protects itself from being eaten.


Bee the smoking revolution - scientists have found that terpenes are responsible for enhancing the effects of cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD.


Outside of the plant kingdom, we’ve recently discovered that terpenes are the reason why cannabis tastes and smells the way it does. These organic compounds are responsible for the fruit-floral-fuel-chocolate-coffee-soil-woody-pungent odours. To go even further, scientists have found that terpenes are responsible for enhancing the effects of cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD.


Researchers have found that true terpenes direct THC and CBD to receptors that they eventually bind to. Once a cannabinoid binds or interacts with your body’s endocannabinoid receptors, you begin to feel various effects.

How to use terpenes

Revolutionary methods of terpene extraction now allow you to smoketerpenes isolate. Since the terpenes remain intact, they operate the same as if they were still on a cannabis flower. This means that terpenes will exceed your high when mixed with cannabis products.

Smoking terpenes is an enjoyable way to increase the taste and effect of your spliff. By adding a terpene blend into your joint, you’ll be left with a refreshing spliff like no other.

Additionally, smoking terpenes in place of tobacco decreases your exposure and addiction to nicotine. Many individuals have normalized tobacco by placing small amounts in their spliffs, but now, you can replace nicotine with these beneficial terpene blends.

 Terpenes are found in all plants in nature—you can use it interchangeably with essential oils.

Terpenes are found in all plants in nature - you can use it interchangeably with essential oils.

Terpenes and Vaporizing

Possibly even more versatile than smoking terpenes is vaping them. By obtaining t, you can easily make erpene e-juice custom terpene profiles to add to a given cannabis product. This means you can mix and match flavours to experiment with a wide range of tastes. No longer are you limited to the same taste by many OGs, Haze or Kush varieties.


How to Save Money and Cannabis with Terpenes 

Another incredible benefit of vaping or smoking true terpenes is that they can reduce your cannabis consumption, thereby decreasing the amount you spend. This is because terpenes enhance the effects of THC and CBD, which allow you to consume less to feel the same effect as if you had consumed more. As a result, true terpenes create the “less is more” outcome.


Terpenes enhance the effects of THC and CBD, which allow you to consume less to feel the same effect as if you had consumed more.

Terpenes enhance the effects of THC and CBD, which allow you to consume less to feel the same effect as if you had consumed more.

Do CBD Products Contain Terpenes?

Many CBD isolates don’t contain terpenes because they’ve been stripped of them during the refinement process to ensure that only CBD is left in the product. Sadly, this means that many CBD products are void of terpenes.

By purchasing a terpene blend for vaping or smoking, you can create a flavorful CBD product when combining the two.


Can Terpenes Be Used with E-Juice?

Now, you too can enjoy the benefits of terpenes by trying Real Leaf’s smokable terpenes or terpene e-juice. The available terpenes are OG Kush, Mango Kush, and Pineapple Express. These are some of the cannabis community’s favourite flavour profiles, and now you can add these incredible true terpenes to your spliff or vape products.


Take your cannabis experience to the next level


If you’re ready to take your cannabis experience to the next level, then join Real Leaf and their terpene products for an unforgettable taste that you won’t soon forget.




Each person may react differently to terpenes. Smoking terpenes is not recommended if you’re pregnant (and not only terpenes). Smoking is known to be detrimental to your overall health. And please reach the proper age (18-21).

Source RealLeaf

November 13, 2019 — Chiara Lanza
The Endocannabinoid System: A Bridge Between Body and Mind?

The Endocannabinoid System: A Bridge Between Body and Mind?

Not long ago, Dr Dustin Sulak did an article for NORML (the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) that discussed the human endocannabinoid system is simple, easy to understand terms.

In it, he described the ways in which plant-based cannabinoids (called phytocannabinoids) like CBD interact with naturally-occurring receptors in our bodies to regulate and maintain an astonishingly wide range of bodily functions. So many things, he said, seem to be in some way connected to this vast internal molecular system that each and every one of us has.

And not just us as humans; Dr Sulak also mentioned that every living vertebrate animal – from horses and dogs to “sea squirts and nematodes” – also has this ECS system which response to the active molecular compounds in cannabis.

How is this possible? How is it that nearly every living thing on earth has an innate molecular system that governs virtually all aspects of health, homeostasis, survival, and reproduction? And how is it that this system can be so influenced and manipulated by natural compounds in the cannabis plant?

Well, as it turns out, natural cannabis compounds (CBD being one of them) have a near-identical chemical structure as the human compounds (specifically anandamide and 2-AG) that govern the endocannabinoid system.

For this reason, Dr Sulak has described the ECS as “perhaps the most important physiologic system involved in establishing and maintaining human health,” and has illustrated it as a potential bridge between body and mind that oversees molecular actions on our organs, cells, nerves, and immune system, among many other things.

The Importance of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoid receptors have been found in virtually every and cell and tissue type in the human body. In fact, some researchers believe they may be the most prominent and abundant receptor in humans. They are located in the membranes of various cell types, and when they’re activated, they can “stimulate” cells to carry out dozens – if not hundreds or thousands – of different responses.

Cannabinoid receptors have been found for example throughout our nervous system, glands, connective tissues, organs, immune system, and reproductive systems. Under “healthy” conditions, the receptors are stimulated by the aforementioned endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG, which are produced naturally by the body.

If/when there is a deficiency in the production or functioning of these compounds (a condition known as endocannabinoid deficiency), the receptors are unable to be stimulated, and thus the cells and corresponding organs are not able to function properly or maintain homeostasis (balance) throughout the body.

This is where phytocannabinoids (such as CBD) from the cannabis plant can come in.

In the event of a deficiency or malfunctioning of the human compounds anandamide or 2-AG, plant-based cannabinoids may be able to effectively “take their place” and stimulate the cannabinoid receptors on their own, thereby allowing cells to carry out their specific functions and return the body back to a relative state of homeostasis.

Moreover, what’s so incredible about these cannabinoid compounds and their receptors is their “multi-function” capabilities. In other words, they appear to be able to “instruct” the cell to carry out a number of different functions, depending on what exactly the body needs to return to a state of balance.

In terms of the action of CBD specifically, it appears to differ from the other key cannabis compound (THC) in one crucial way; it doesn’t bind directly to the receptors in our cells.

Rather, it seems to work in more of an indirect or “roundabout” way to promote the natural production of our endocannabinoids, rather than “doing things on its own.” For this reason, rather than producing a psychoactive, mind-altering response in the brain and central nervous system (as does THC), it simply promotes our body’s cells to repair themselves in an organic, natural way.

And lastly, the ‘oxidation’ of certain compounds in our bodies results in what’s known as “free radical” compounds. These compounds can do irreversible and potentially catastrophic damage to cells unless a sufficient number of “antioxidants” are available to dispose of them.

In this way, compounds like CBD are believed to provide a natural and highly effective form of protection against free radicals that, according to Dr. Sulak, can cause aging and an inability for the body to heal itself.

How the Endocannabinoid System Works as a “Bridge” Between Mind and Body

In addition to the seemingly “straightforward” physiologic effects that they have on our cellular receptors, Dr Sulak also suggests that cannabinoids such as CBD can play a crucial role on much larger social and environmental scales.

For example, he believes natural cannabis compounds have the ability to alter our relationship with the environment around us, and allow us to adapt in a positive way to the myriad of changes (whether physical, emotional, etc) that we face on a day-to-day basis.

“Socially,” he says, “the administration of cannabinoids clearly alters human behaviour, often promoting sharing, humour, and creativity.”

These changes, in combination with the ability of cannabinoids to promote the growth and development of new nerve cells, may improve our open-mindedness and allow us to transcend “limiting patterns of thought and behaviour” – a crucial step in maintaining total body/mind health in a perpetually changing environment.

In this way, we begin to understand from a scientific perspective how CBD – and cannabis in general – may truly be a molecular bridge between body and mind.


In Conclusion: A Word of Discretion and Responsibility

Taking all of this into consideration, it is still important to reiterate the fact that cannabis and endocannabinoid research is still very much in its infancy. Regardless of how fascinating and promising initial research studies and findings have been, there is still much that we need to learn about in terms of how this system works on a complete chemical and physiological level, and how we can manipulate it to maximum effect with cannabis compounds such as CBD.

Moreover, due to the fact that every one of us has a unique endocannabinoid system and a unique makeup of cellular receptors, we must point out that not everyone will experience positive effects when taking a product like CBD oil – or any other CBD-infused product for that matter. In fact, some may not experience any effects at all.

As a general word of advice, be realistic and patient when anticipating the effects of CBD.

November 10, 2019 — Chiara Lanza
What are Terpens?

What are Terpens?


If you’re anyone who knows anything about cannabis, and more specifically CBD, then you have likely heard of terpenes. But, perhaps you’re not sure exactly what they are. I mean, sure we know all about cannabinoids, especially CBD, and all that they do, but most of us are probably unaware of terpenes and what purpose they serve. So today we’re here to fill you in on everything there is to know about terpenes and their importance.

What are Terpenes?

Terpenes are the natural compounds that are responsible for the flavours, smells, and colours that are found in every plant on earth, including, of course, cannabis. What you’re sensing in fruits, meats, flowers, and even cleaning materials are terpenes. Let’s use soup as an example. Some soups can be delicate with a herbal smell, while others can smell rich and meaty – it all depends on the terpenes.

Essentially, terpenes are aromatic metabolites that can be found in the oils of all plants. There are more than 20,000 terpenes, and at least 100 of them are produced by the cannabis plant. The production of terpenoids evolved over time in some plants to act as defence compounds and to attract pollinators.

Glandular trichomes – which are glands that look like small hairs that protrude from the leaves and flowers – are produced by female cannabis plants. The trichomes from home for crucial cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. If the plants are handled delicately and the trichomes are left intact throughout collection and processing, the end result is excellent cannabis that has strong and distinct smells, flavours, and colours.

The production of terpenes is largely dependant on abiotic factors such as humidity, light intensity, and temperature; these factors are synthesized in response to a variety of influences. This is the reason that cannabis producers put a lot of emphasis on the standardization of growing conditions for their strains.

Some of the latest studies have found that the terpenes found in cannabis don’t only affect how a strain will taste and smell, but more importantly they may determine what they do on a chemical level. In fact, terpenes are known to have a unique effect on the endocannabinoid system (ECS), since each type may deliver a different sensory experience.

November 10, 2019 — Davide Carlucci